Hallux Rigidus (rigid big toe)

Hallux rigidus is a disorder of the joint located at the base of the big toe. It causes pain and stiffness in the joint, and with time, it gets increasingly harder to bend the toe. Hallux refers to the big toe, while rigidus indicates that the toe is rigid and cannot move.

Hallux Valgus

Hallux valgus or a bunion is a condition whereby the big toe becomes crooked. Hallux is the Latin word for the big toeand valgus means 'turned outwards'. So, the big toe is turned outwards, often creating a lump on the inside of the foot. The other, small toes can be compressed, so that these toes can also assume a different position. A hallux valgus can cause stabbing pain in the big toe joint or bursitis. The hallux valgus mainly occurs in women but can also occur in men.


Thick, hardened layers of skin often caused by friction and pressure. Corns most often develop on the tops and sides of feet and between the toes. They are benign and can also be found in weight-bearing areas. Symptoms include hardened, raised bumps surrounded Callus or inflamed skin. Pressure related corns are often painful when pressed.


A callus is an area of thickened skin that forms as a response to repeated friction, pressure, or other irritation. Since repeated contact is required, calluses are most often found on the feet and hands, but they may occur anywhere on the skin. Some degree of callus, such as on the bottom of the foot, is normal. In some cases, calluses can be painful and give a burning sensation.