Lower leg

Shin Splints

Shin splints is an overuse injury of the leg often seen in runners, soldiers and people who practice sports which include a lot of jumping. In the case of tibial inflammation, there may be too high a tensile stress on the muscles that attach to the lower leg or an excessive load on the bone, as a result of insufficient shock absorption. The high tensile stress can be caused by an abnormal foot position or a different gait pattern. As a result, small bone deformities on the shin can develop that cause a nagging pain. The exact cause of shin splints is unknown.

Achilles tendon bursitis

Achilles tendon bursitis or retrocalcaneal bursitis is a condition that commonly occurs in athletes. It is a painful condition caused by swelling of bursa, a fluid-filled sac which is located at the back of the heel under the Achilles tendon. This retrocalcaneal bursa contains a lubricating fluid that acts as a cushion to reduce friction between muscle and bones. Achilles tendon is the large tendon that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone and is used when you walk, run, and jump. When the Achilles tendon bursa is inflamed, it is often thickened and painful. The sore is warm and sometimes red.

Achilles tendinopathy


Tendinopathy is a degeneration of the collagen protein that forms the tendon and occurs when a tendon is unable to adapt to the strain being placed upon it. This leads to repeated small amounts of damage within the tendon fibres, and results in the tendon trying to heal itself in response to the strain. Morning stiffness, tenderness of the Achilles tendon and pain at the start or after exercise are common traits of this condition.

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