Jumper's knee

A jumper's knee has a nagging or stabbing pain on the front of the knee, just below the kneecap. Jumping sports such as volleyball, basketball and skiing cause the most pain complaints. The more intensively the knee is loaded, the greater the pain. In severe cases, pain complaints are also present in daily life. The pain symptoms develop slowly and increase over time. If the pain is not heeded, a jumper's knee can develop into a chronic complaint. Sometimes fluid builds up around the affected area in the knee.

Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) / Runner’s Knee

Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is the second most common knee injury caused by inflammation located on the outside aspect of the knee due to friction between the iliotibial band and the outer epicondyle of the femur. Pain is felt most commonly on the outer aspect of the knee and is most intensive at 30 degrees of knee flexion. Pain can also be felt at the hip, where the ITB rubs over the outside of the hip. ITBS is most associated with long distance running, cycling, weightlifting, and with military training. 

Osgood-Schlatter disease

Is a childhood repetitive-use injury, which includes inflammation of the patellar ligament at the tibial tuberosity. It is characterized by a painful bump just below the knee that is worse with activity and better with rest. Osgood-Schlatter disease affects children experiencing growth spurts. Children who play sports in which they regularly run, and jump are most at risk. The disease causes a painful lump below the kneecap. The condition usually resolves on its own, once the child's bones stop growing.

Überstreckung der Knie 

Genu recurvatum is a deformity in the knee joint, so that the knee bends backwards. In this deformity, excessive extension occurs in the tibiofemoral joint. Genu recurvatum is also called knee hyperextension and back knee. This condition can be minor and may be due to laxity in the ligaments. 


Bowlegs (or genu varum) is when the legs curve outward at the knees while the feet and ankles touch. Infants and toddlers often have bowlegs. But for example, the incidence of bowlegs is found higher among soccer players. It is a common deformity and can be asymptomatic. 

Knock knees

Genu valgum, commonly known as "knock-knees", is a condition in which the knees angle in and touch each other when the legs are straightened. Individuals with severe valgus deformities are typically unable to touch their feet together while simultaneously straightening the legs. In some cases, instability may arise. In these cases, the knees are often overextended to go in an energy efficient position. Fatigue of calf, thigh or back muscles during long standing or walking is a common complaint. On the long-term knock knees can suffer from arthrosis due to the angle of the knees and due to instability other complaints can arise as well.