Spondylolysis is defined as a defect or stress fracture in the pars interarticularis of the vertebral arch. The vast majority of cases occur in the lower lumbar vertebrae (L5), but spondylolysis may also occur in the cervical vertebrae. The cause of spondylolysis remains unknown, however many factors are thought to contribute to its development. The condition is present in up to 6% of the population, majority of which usually present asymptomatically.


Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine. Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine that occurs most often during the growth spurt just before puberty. While scoliosis can be caused by conditions such as cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy, the cause of most scoliosis is unknown. One of the reasons may be a leg length discrepancy, for unknown reasons one leg can growth faster during development. In this case it is advised to correct the discrepancy and keep close monitoring on the development of your child. These discrepancies are often temporary, but if it is not corrected the spine may develop in a scoliotic position. This condition is often treated together with physiotherapie.

Low back pain (Lumbago)

Acute lumbago is when the function of your back muscles is limited, usually in the lumbar spine region. It often happens with everyday movements like lifting, bending, or getting up from a seated position. Lumbago is the body's way of protecting itself – it's a reflex response where your lower back muscles tense up.

Whiplash injury

A neck injury that can occur when the head suddenly moves backward and then forward. This type of injury can occur, for example, during rear-end vehicle collisions. Injuries range from mild to severe. The main symptom is pain in the neck and shoulders but dizziness, vertigo, headaches, difficulty focussing, and muscle spasms or stiffness are also common. 

Slipped disc or herniated / prolapsed disc

This condition occurs when the soft centre of a spinal disc pushes through a crack in the tougher exterior casing. Some herniated discs cause no symptoms. Others can irritate nearby nerves and result in pain, numbness or weakness in an arm or leg. Not every disc needs intervention.

Sciatica (sciatic neuritis)

Also called: sciatic neuritis, pain radiates along the sciatic nerve, which runs down one or both legs from the lower back. It's usually caused when a herniated disc or bone spur in the spine presses on the nerve. Pain originates in the spine and radiates down the back of the leg. Sciatica typically affects only one side of the body.