Foot & ankle


(over)pronation (excessive tilting inwards during walking): In overpronation, the ankle rolls too far downward and inward with each step. It continues to roll when the toes should be starting to push off. As a result, the big toe and second toe do all of the push-off and the foot twists more with each step. Overpronation is seen more often in people with flat feet, although not everyone with flat feet overpronates.


Thick, hardened layers of skin often caused by friction and pressure. Corns most often develop on the tops and sides of feet and between the toes. They are benign and can also be found in weight-bearing areas. Symptoms include hardened, raised bumps surrounded Callus or inflamed skin. Pressure related corns are often painful when pressed.


A callus is an area of thickened skin that forms as a response to repeated friction, pressure, or other irritation. Since repeated contact is required, calluses are most often found on the feet and hands, but they may occur anywhere on the skin. Some degree of callus, such as on the bottom of the foot, is normal. In some cases, calluses can be painful and give a burning sensation. 

Morbus Köhler 1

Köhler disease is a rare bone disorder of the foot found in children between six and nine years of age. Köhler disease is known to affect five times more boys than girls and typically, only one foot is affected. Köhler disease is a rare bone disorder, osteochondrosis of the navicular bone. characterized by a painful swollen foot. The foot is especially tender along the length of the arch. It may include redness of the affected area. Putting weight on the foot or walking is difficult, causing further discomfort and a limp.

Morbus Köhler-Freiberg

Also known as Morbus Köhler 2, Freiberg disease or Freiberg infraction. It is a form of avascular necrosis in the metatarsal bone of the foot. It generally develops in the second metatarsal, but can occur in any metatarsal. Physical stress causes multiple tiny fractures where the middle of the metatarsal meets the growth plate. These fractures impair blood flow to the end of the metatarsal resulting in the death of bone cells (osteonecrosis). It occurs mainly in girls between the ages of 12 and 18.

Sinus tarsi syndrome

The sinus tarsi syndrome is a foot pathology at the outside of the foot near the ankle, mostly following after a traumatic injury to the ankle. It may also occur if the person has a pes planus or an (over)-pronated foot, which can cause compression in the sinus tarsi. This condition can be painful during specific movements and presents itself locally just below and little bit in front of the ankle.